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Antifungal activities of origanum oil against Candida albicans
The antimicrobial properties of volatile aromatic oils from medicinal as well as other edible plants has been recognized since antiquity. Origanum oil, which is used as a food flavoring agent, possesses a broad spectrum of in vitro antimicrobial activities attributed to the high content of phenolic derivatives such as carvacrol and thymol. In the present study, antifungal properties of origanum oil were examined both in vitro and in vivo. Using Candida albicans in broth cultures and a micro dilution method, comparative efficacy of origanum oil, carvacrol, nystatin and amphotericin B were examined in vitro. Origanum oil at 0.25 mg/ml was found to completely inhibit the growth of C. albicans in culture.
Topical Black Seed Oil Beats Tylenol For Pain Relief in Osteoarthritis
Recently, over-the-counter “pain killing” drugs like ibuprofen and Tylenol have been found to have a battery of serious adverse side effects, some even life-threatening. Even aspirin, commonly believed to be a life-saving cardioprotective agent, has come under scrutiny as perhaps doing far more harm than good. Even more astounding is the recent discovery that some of these drugs have soul-numbing properties not unlike psychotropic medications.
Phenolic compounds from Origanum vulgare and their antioxidant and antiviral
In the present study, six new phenolic compounds (1-6) along with five known ones were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plants of Origanum vulgare. The structures of the new compounds were identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, NMR, and HRESIMS) and acid hydrolysis. Twenty-one phenolic compounds isolated from O. vulgare in our previous and present studies were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays; twelve of them including two new compounds exhibited significant antioxidant activity comparable to that of ascorbic acid. In addition, the antiviral effects against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were tested by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay.
Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil as a Potential Anti-Acne Topical
Antibiotics are often prescribed in acne treatment; however, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, the two of the major acne-associated bacteria, developed antibiotic resistance. Essential oils (EOs) present a natural, safe, efficacious and multifunctional alternative treatment. This study aimed to assess the potential anti-acne activity of selected seven EOs commonly used in Mediterranean folk medicine. Antimicrobial activity screening of these oils showed oregano to exhibit the strongest antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.34 mg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 0.67 mg/mL against P. acnes; and MIC of 0.67 mg/mL and MBC of 1.34 mg/mL against S. epidermidis. The composition of the most effective EOs (oregano and thyme) was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Monoterpenoid phenols predominated oregano and thyme EO with thymol percentile 99 and 72, respectively. Thymol showed MIC 0.70 mg/mL against both P. acnes and S. epidermidis whereas MBC was 1.40 and 2.80 mg/mL against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. Moreover, oregano exhibited the strongest anti-biofilm effect against S. epidermidis with MBIC 1.34 mg/mL and killing dynamic time of 12 and 8 h against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. Oregano, the most effective EO, was formulated and tested as a nanoemulsion in an acne animal mouse model. The formulation showed superior healing and antimicrobial effects compared to the reference antibiotic. Collectively, our data suggested that oregano oil nanoemulsion is a potential natural and effective alternative for treating acne and overcoming the emerging antibiotic resistance.
Antimicrobial Activity of Basil, Oregano, and Thyme Essential Oils.
For centuries, plants have been used for a wide variety of purposes, from treating infectious diseases to food preservation and perfume production. Presently, the increasing resistance of microorganisms to currently used antimicrobials in combination with the appearance of emerging diseases requires the urgent development of new, more effective drugs. Plants, due to the large biological and structural diversity of their components, constitute a unique and renewable source for the discovery of new antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic compounds. In the present paper, the history, composition, and antimicrobial activities of the basil, oregano, and thyme essential oils are reviewed.
Evaluation of anti-enzyme properties of Origanum vulgare essential oil
This study aimed to evaluate the anti-enzymatic activity of Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oil against 15 strains of Candida albicans. Candida albicans samples were isolated from the oral mucosa of patients with denture stomatitis treated in a Dentistry school on a public university. Preparation of the inoculum was performed with a suspension of C. albicans reactivated 24h earlier in 5mL of sterile phosphate buffer saline (PBS) adjusted to a 0.5-turbidity on the MacFarland scale (1,5×108UFC/mL). The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type machine and analyzed by gas chromatography. Enzymatic assay was performed to test phospholipase anti-enzymatic properties. Chromatography analysis revealed that the main compounds present in the essential oil were 4-terpineol (41.17%), thymol (21.95%), γ-terpinene (5.91%) and carvacrol (4.71%). For the anti-enzymatic test, the statistical analysis showed that there was found statistically significant interactions between the factors time and concentration (P≤0,001). Thus, essential oil of oregano at 1%, 5% and 10% presented significant reductions in the production of the phospholipase enzyme produced by Candida albicans strains. However, the longer the incubation time of the essential oil, there is a relatively moderate reduction in its anti-enzymatic activity.
Origanum vulgare L. essential oil inhibits the growth of
carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria.
Introduction: Plant products are sources for drug development against multidrug resistant bacteria.
Methods: The antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVeo) against carbapenem-resistant strains was assessed by disk-diffusion, microdilution (REMA-Resazurin Microtiter Assay), and time kill assays.
Results: Carbapenemase production was confirmed for all strains. OVeo exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.059% v/v for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens, and of 0.015 % v/v for Acinetobacter baumannii. A decrease in cell count was observed after a 4 h treatment.
Conclusions: OVeo antimicrobial effect was rapid and consistent, making it a candidate for developing alternative therapeutic options against carbapenem-resistant strains.
Dietary Plants for the Prevention and Management of Kidney Stones: Preclinical and Clinical Evidence and Molecular Mechanisms.
Kidney stones are one of the oldest known and common diseases in the urinary tract system. Various human studies have suggested that diets with a higher intake of vegetables and fruits play a role in the prevention of kidney stones. In this review, we have provided an overview of these dietary plants, their main chemical constituents, and their possible mechanisms of action. Camellia sinensis (green tea), Rubus idaeus (raspberry), Rubia cordifolia (common madder), Petroselinum crispum (parsley), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Pistacia lentiscus (mastic), Solanum xanthocarpum (yellow-fruit nightshade), Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), Dolichos biflorus (horse gram), Ammi visnaga (khella), Nigella sativa (black-cumin), Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle), and Origanum vulgare (oregano) have received considerable interest based on scientific evidence. Beside these dietary plants, phytochemicals-such as catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, diosmin, rutin, quercetin, hyperoside, and curcumin-as antioxidant dietary phyto-phenols were found to be effective for the prevention of urolithiasis (the process of stone formation in the urinary tract). The main underlying mechanisms of these dietary plants and their isolated phytonutrients in the management of urolithiasis include diuretic, antispasmodic, and antioxidant activity, as well as an inhibitory effect on crystallization, nucleation, and aggregation of crystals. The results as presented in this review demonstrate the promising role of dietary plants and phytophenols in the prevention and management of kidney stones. Further investigations are required to confirm the safety and efficacy of these compounds.